Couplings & ShaftsA coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power.
Couplings do not normally allow disconnection of shafts during operation, however there are torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded.
The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both.
By careful selection, installation and maintenance of couplings, substantial savings can be made in reduced maintenance costs and downtime.
3 main types of couplings:
1. Rigid coupling a rigid coupling is a unit of hardware used to join two shafts within a motor or mechanical system. It may be used to connect two separate systems, such as a motor and a generator, or to repair a connection within a single system. A rigid coupling may also be added between shafts to reduce shock and wear at the point where the shafts meet.
When joining shafts within a machine, mechanics can choose between flexible and rigid couplings. While flexible units offer some movement and give between the shafts, rigid couplings are the most effective choice for precise alignment and secure hold. By precisely aligning the two shafts and holding them firmly in place, rigid couplings help to maximize performance and increase the expected life of the machine. These rigid couplings are available in two basic designs to fit the needs of different applications. Sleeve-style couplings are the most affordable and easiest to use. They consist of a single tube of material with an inner diameter that’s equal in size to the shafts. The sleeve slips over the shafts so they meet in the middle of the coupling. A series of set screws can be tightened so they touch the top of each shaft and hold them in place without passing all the way through the coupling.
Clamped or compression rigid couplings come in two parts and fit together around the shafts to form a sleeve. They offer more flexibility than sleeved models, and can be used on shafts that are fixed in place. They generally are large enough so that screws can pass all the way through the coupling and into the second half to ensure a secure hold.
Flanged rigid couplings are designed for heavy loads or industrial equipment. They consist of short sleeves surrounded by a perpendicular flange. One coupling is placed on each shaft so the two flanges line up face to face. A series of screws or bolts can then be installed in the flanges to hold them together. Because of their size and durability, flanged units can be used to bring shafts into alignment before they are joined together. Rigid couplings are used when precise shaft alignment is required; shaft misalignment will affect the coupling’s performance as well as its life.
2. Flexible coupling flexible couplings are used to transmit torque from one shaft to another when the two shafts are slightly misaligned. Flexible couplings can accommodate varying degrees of misalignment up to 3° and some parallel misalignment. In addition, they can also be used for vibration damping or noise reduction.This coupling is used to protect the driving and driven shaft members against harmful effects produce due to misalignment of the shafts, sudden shock loads, shaft expansion or vibrations etc.
3. Torque limiter coupling designed to slip the torque out of the shaft to prevent damage to the engine or the application
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